Maximum electrical power extraction from sources by load matching

Sigmund Singer, Shlomi Efrati*, Meir Alon, Doron Shmilovitz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper describes the matching of various loads to sources (including nonlinear ones). The purpose of matching is to extract the maximum available power from the source. This has particular importance for renewable sources and energy-harvesting devices, in which unused energy is just wasted. The main innovations in this paper include (and followed by examples) simplified calculation of the matching parameter for a controllable load and matching by means of a family of power-conservative two-port networks, denoted POPI (Pin = Pout), such as transformers, gyrators, loss-free resistors (LFRs) and series LFRs (SLFRs). An additional innovation described in this paper is a new, simplified model of an HF power amplifier based on the series LFR concept. This model predicts that the efficiency of the HF power amplifier operated under the matched-mode condition can significantly exceed the 50% efficiency limit that is predicted by the conventional model. As HF power amplifiers drive antennas in transmission and some wireless power transfer (which uses radiative techniques) systems, it is clear that the operation of such systems in the matched-mode condition is not restricted to a 50% efficiency limit.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8025
Issue number23
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • HF power amplifier
  • Impedance matching
  • Loss-free resistor (LFR)
  • Maximum power transfer
  • POPI networks
  • Renewable energy sources
  • Transmission systems
  • Wireless power transfer


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