Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play key roles in vascular remodeling. We characterized the role of inflammatory mediators and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) in the control of arterialized vein graft expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and membrane-type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) and of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2). For this purpose we used a canine model of jugular vein to carotid artery interposition graft and analyzed the vein grafts at various postoperative times (30 min to 28 days) using the contralateral vein as a control. To study the role of ERK-1/2, veins were incubated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK-1/2) inhibitor UO126 for 30 min before being grafted. Vein graft extracts were analyzed for MMPs, TIMP-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and thrombin activity, and for ERK-1/2 activation. Vein graft arterialization resulted in rapid and sustained (8 h to 28 days) upregulation of vein graft-associated MMP-9, MMP-2, MT1-MMP, thrombin activity, and TNF-α levels with concomitant TIMP-2 downregulation. MMP-2 activation preceded MT1-MMP upregulation. PMN infiltration and vein graft-associated MPO activity increased within hours after arterialization, indicating a prompt, local inflammatory response. In cultured smooth muscle cells, both thrombin and TNF-α upregulated MT1-MMP expression; however, only thrombin activated MMP-2. Inhibition of ERK-1/2 activation blocked arterialization-induced upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP. Thus, thrombin, inflammatory mediators, and activation of the ERK-1/2 pathway control MMP and TIMP-2 expression in arterialized vein grafts.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology|
|State||Published - Apr 2006|
- Mitogen-activated protein kinase
- Vascular remodeling