Masculinity, popularity, and self-esteem among Israeli preadolescent girls

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This study compared girls who evidence more traditionally masculine characteristics to girls who evidence more traditionally feminine characteristics for popularity and various aspects of self-esteem (general, home and parents, and social). Subjects were 166 Israeli girls aged 9 to 10 years who were categorized into four gender-role orientation groups: feminine, masculine, androgynous, and undifferentiated. They completed a tomboyism questionnaire designed for the study, which included items representing components of gender-stereotypes such as roles, physical appearance and occupation [K. Deaux and L. L. Lewis (1984) "Structure of Gender Stereotypes: Inter-relationships Among Components and Gender Label," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 46, pp. 991-1004]. All subjects completed Version A of the S. Coopersmith Self-Esteem Questionnaire [(1967) The Antecedents of Self-Esteem, San Francisco, Freeman] and their sociometric status was measured. Results indicated that those girls who reported both traits and behaviors considered to be traditionally masculine comprised a unique group. They were less popular, they had lower social self-esteem, and they were less satisfied with their gender.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)395-408
Number of pages14
JournalSex Roles
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - Mar 1997


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