Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play a central role in cellular growth, proliferation, and survival. MAPK cascade genes have been extensively investigated in model plants, mammals, yeast, and fungi but are not characterized in Plasmodiophora brassicae, which causes clubroot disease in cruciferous plants. Here, we identified 7 PbMAPK, 3 PbMAPKK, and 9 PbMAPKKK genes in the P. brassicae genome. Transcriptional profiling analysis demonstrated that several MAPK, MAPK kinase (MAPKK), and MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) genes were preferentially expressed in three different zoosporic stages. Based on yeast two-hybrid assays, PbMAKKK7 interacted with PbMAKK3 and PbMAKK3 interacted with PbMAK1/ PbMAK3. The PbMAKKK7-PbMAKK3-PbMAK1/PbMAK3 cascade may be present in P. brassicae. U0126, a potent and specific inhibitor of MAPKK, could inhibit the germination of P. brassicae resting spores. U0126 was used to treat the resting spores of P. brassicae and coinoculate rapeseed, and was proven to significantly relieve the severity of clubroot symptoms in the host plant and delay the life cycle of P. brassicae. These results suggest that MAPK signaling pathways may play important roles in P. brassicae growth, development, and pathogenicity.