Anemia is a common finding in patients with heart failure (HF). The cause for anemia is multifactorial, with iron deficiency being the most common cause. Anemia with HF is an established predictor of morbidity and mortality. Iron deficiency in systolic HF, even without anemia, has been associated with increased mortality, increased hospitalizations, and decreased functional capacity and quality of life measures. Data from several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses of iron deficiency and systolic HF show a beneficial effect for intravenous (IV) iron in terms of quality of life and functional capacity (improvements in 6-min walk test, and improvements in New York Heart Association functional class), as well as decreased hospitalizations for HF and reduction in cardiovascular mortality rates. Limited evidence exists for a beneficial effect of IV iron in diastolic dysfunction. Patients with symptomatic systolic HF should undergo an anemia diagnostic work-up. When iron deficiency (defined as ferritin <100 ng/mL or serum ferritin 100-299 ng/mL and transferrin saturation <20%) is present, current evidence supports treating HF patients with iron deficiency with IV iron.
- Heart failure