Management and outcomes over time of acute coronary syndrome patients at particularly high cardiovascular risk: the ACSIS registry-based retrospective study

Tzlil Grinberg, Yoav Hammer, Maya Wiessman, Leor Perl, Tal Ovdat, Or Tsafrir, Yoni Kogan, Roy Beigel, Katia Orvin, Ran Kornowski, Alon Eisen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective Some patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at particularly increased risk for recurrent cardiovascular events. We aimed to examine temporal trends in the management and outcomes across the spectrum of these particularly high-risk patients. Design and setting A retrospective study based on the ACS Israeli survey (ACSIS) registry, a multicentre prospective national registry, taking place biennially in 25 cardiology departments in Israel. Temporal trends were examined in the early (2002-2008) and late (2010-2018) time periods. Participants Consecutive patients with ACS enrolled in the ACSIS registry were stratified according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Risk Score for secondary prevention (TRS2 ° P) to high (TRS2 ° p=3), very high (TRS2 ° p=4) or extremely high risk (TRS2 ° p=5-9). Patients with TRS2 ° p<3 were excluded. From the initial 15 196 patients enrolled, 5359 patients were eventually included. Clinical outcome measures included 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and 1-year mortality. Results Among 5359 patients (50% high risk, 30% very high risk and 20% extremely high risk), those with a higher risk were older, had more comorbidities, presented more with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and were treated less often with guideline-recommended pharmacotherapy and percutaneous coronary intervention. Over time, treatment has improved in all risk strata, and the rate of 30-day MACE has significantly decreased in all risk groups (from 21% to 10%, from 22% to 15%, and from 26% to 16%, in high, very high and extremely high-risk groups, respectively, p<0.001 for each). However, 1-year mortality decreased only among high and very high-risk patients, and not among extremely high-risk patients in whom 1-year mortality rates remained very high (28.7% vs 28.9%, p=1). Conclusion Within a particularly high-risk cohort of patients with ACS, treatment has significantly progressed over almost 2 decades. While short-term outcomes have improved in all risk groups, 1-year mortality has remained unchanged in extremely high-risk patients with ACS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number060953
JournalBMJ Open
Volume12
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 11 Apr 2022

Keywords

  • coronary heart disease
  • ischaemic heart disease
  • myocardial infarction

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