The effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors on pituitary tumors is unknown. Akt overexpression was demonstrated in pituitary adenomas, which may render them sensitive to the anti-proliferative effects of these drugs. The objective of the study was to evaluate the anti-proliferative efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, and its orally bioavailable analog RAD001 on the GH-secreting pituitary tumor GH3 and MtT/S cells and in human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas (GH-omas) in primary cell cultures. Treatment with rapamycin or RAD001 significantly decreased the number of viable cells and cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This was reflected by decreased phosphorylation levels of the downstream mTOR target p70S6K. Rapamycin treatment of GH3 cells induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. In other tumor cell types, this was attributed to a decrease in cyclin D1 levels. However, rapamycin did not affect cyclin D1 protein levels in GH3 cells. By contrast, it decreased cyclin D3 and p21/CIP, which stabilizes cyclin D/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) complexes. Rapamycin inhibited FCS-induced retinoblastoma phosphorylation and subsequent E2F-transcriptional activity. In response to decreased E2F activity, the expression of the E2F-regulated genes cyclin E and cdk2 was reduced. Our results showed that mTOR inhibitors potently inhibit pituitary cell proliferation, suggesting that mTOR inhibition may be a promising anti-proliferative therapy for pituitary adenomas. This therapeutic manipulation may have beneficial effects particularly for patients harboring invasive pituitary tumors resistant to current treatments.