Machine learning-based prediction of 1-year mortality for acute coronary syndrome

Amir Hadanny*, Roni Shouval, Jianhua Wu, Chris P. Gale, Ron Unger, Doron Zahger, Shmuel Gottlieb, Shlomi Matetzky, Ilan Goldenberg, Roy Beigel, Zaza Iakobishvili

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Clinical risk assessment with quantitative formal risk scores may add to intuitive physician risk assessment and are advised by the international guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Most previous studies have used the binary regression/classification approach (dead/alive) for long-term mortality post-ACS, without considering the time-to-event as in survival analysis. The use of machine learning (ML)-based survival models has yet to be validated. The primary objective was to compare survival prediction performance of 1-year mortality following ACS of two newly developed ML-based models [random survival forest (RSF) and deep learning (DeepSurv)] with the traditional Cox-proportional hazard (CPH) model. The secondary objective was external validation of the findings. Methods: This was a retrospective, supervised learning data mining study based on the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS) and the Myocardial Ischemia National Audit Project (MINAP). The ACSIS data were divided to train/test in a 70/30 fashion. Next, the models were externally validated on the MINAP data. Harrell's C-index, inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW), and the Brier-score were used for models’ performance comparison. Results: RSF performed best among the three models, with Harrell's C-index on training and testing sets reaching 0.953 and 0.924 respectively, followed by CPH multivariate selected model (0.805/0.849), CPH Univariate selected model (0.828/0.806), DeepSurv model (0.801/0.804), and the traditional CPH model (0.826/0.738). The RSF model also had the highest performance on the validation data set with 0.811 for Harrell's C-index, 0.844 for IPCW, and 0.093 for Brier score. The CPH model performance on the validation set had C-index range between 0.689 to 0.790, 0.713 to 0.826 for IPCW, and 0.094 to 0.103 Brier score. Conclusions: RSF survival predictions for long-term mortality post-ACS show improved model performance compared with the classic statistical method. This may benefit patients by allowing better risk stratification and tailored therapy, however further prospective evaluations are required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)342-351
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cardiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • Machine learning
  • Mortality
  • Outcome
  • Survival


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