Low communication 2-prover zero-knowledge proofs for NP

Cynthia Dwork, Uri Feige, Joe Kilian, Moni Naor, Muli Safra

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


We exhibit a two-prover perfect zero-knowledge proof system for 3-SAT. In this protocol, the verifier asks a single message to each prover, whose size grows logarithmically in the size of the 3-SAT formula. Each prover’s answer consists of only a constant number of bits. The verifier will always accept correct proofs. Given an unsatisfiable formula 5 the verifier will reject with probability at least Ω((|S|— max-sat (S))/|S|, where max-sat (S) denotes the maximum number of clauses of S that may be simultaneously satisfied, and |S| denotes the total number of clauses of S. Using a recent result by Arora et al [2], we can construct for any language in NP a protocol with the property that any non-member of the language be rejected with constant probability.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Cryptology — CRYPTO 1992 - 12th Annual International Cryptology Conference, Proceedings
EditorsErnest F. Brickell
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages13
ISBN (Print)9783540573401
StatePublished - 1993
Externally publishedYes
Event12th Annual International Cryptology Conference, CRYPTO 1992 - Santa Barbara, United States
Duration: 16 Aug 199220 Aug 1992

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume740 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference12th Annual International Cryptology Conference, CRYPTO 1992
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySanta Barbara


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