Long-term memory for sensitization in Aplysia requires new protein and RNA synthesis. Here, we identify a late protein as calreticulin, the major Ca2+-binding protein of the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. An antiserum against Aplysia calreticulin reveals an enrichment of calreticulin immunoreactivity in presynaptic varicosities. Quantitative S1 nuclease analysis indicates that the steady-state level of calreticulin mRNA in Aplysia sensory neurons increases during the maintenance phase of long-term sensitization. The finding that this mRNA increases in expression late, some time after training, is consistent with the idea that long-term neuromodulatory changes underlying sensitization may depend on a cascade of gene expression in which the induction of early regulatory genes leads to the expression of late effector genes.