A total of 132 patients with stage A1 adenocarcinoma of the prostate was followed for 5 to 23 years (mean 8.2 years). Of these patients 52 underwent a second staging transurethral resection of the prostate between 1977 and 1986. Progressive disease developed in 3 of the 12 patients (25%) in whom residual foci of well differentiated cancer were detected by the second transurethral resection and who did not undergo further treatment. Of the 38 patients in whom the second transurethral resection did not detect residual cancer 3 (8%) also had progressive disease. From April 1989 to December 1989, 44 patients were re-evaluated by transrectal ultrasonography and ultrasonographically guided biopsies. Of these patients 3 had locally progressive disease. Progressive disease also developed in 4 more patients. Thus, 13 of the 132 patients (10%) had either locally or systemically progressive disease after long-term followup. The interval from diagnosis of stage A1 disease to detection of progression ranged from 6 months to 20 years (mean 7 years). Ten patients underwent definitive treatment for what was believed to be locally progressive disease, 2 underwent palliative therapy and 1 had no therapy due to poor physical condition. Of the 10 patients who underwent definitive therapy 6 are alive without evidence of disease, 2 died of unrelated causes without evidence of disease and 2 are alive with stage D1 disease. These data suggest that patients in whom a second staging transurethral resection of the prostate detects residual cancer have a high probability of progressive disease. Also, negative findings from a second staging transurethral resection may not exclude the possibility of disease progression. Expectant management of stage A1 disease is warranted but regular and long-term followup is mandatory.
- Prostate neoplasms