Long-Term Follow-Up of Yearly Replaced Double Internal Stents for Extrinsic Malignant Ureteral Obstruction

Ziv Savin, Haim Herzberg, Reuven Ben-David, Snir Dekalo, Ishay Mintz, Ron Marom, Yazeed Barghouthy, Roy Mano, Ofer Yossepowitch, Mario Sofer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: To assess long-term outcomes of double internal stents (DIS) for the relief of external malignant ureteral obstruction (MUO). Materials and Methods: DIS (7F each; 12-month indwelling time) were inserted under general anesthesia in 62 consecutive patients (75 renal units) with MUO during 2007-2018. Surveillance was performed every 3 months, and stents were exchanged routinely every year. The need for permanent stent retrieval was considered stent failure. Maintenance of stent patency and disease-specific survival (DSS) were estimated (Kaplan-Meier). Risk factors were also assessed (univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses). Results: The median follow-up was 27 months (interquartile range [IQR] 20-27). The most frequent tumors causing obstruction were colorectal and ovarian cancers. Six patients (10%) had stent failure caused by sepsis, creatinine elevation, or hematuria. The average time to failure was 15 months (range 1-27). A history of radiation and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤45 mL/(min/1.73 m2) were associated with stent failure (p = 0.038 and p = 0.001, respectively). Thirty-nine patients died with a median DSS of 21 months (IQR 8.6-not reached). Multivariate analysis identified eGFR ≤60 mL/(min/1.73 m2) (hazard ratio [HR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.2, p = 0.02) and need for balloon dilation (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.1, p = 0.02) as independent predictors for disease-related mortality. Twenty-six patients (42%) had stent-related complications, for example, irritative symptoms, hematuria, and infections, of whom only two failed. Conclusions: One-year indwelling DIS provide effective long-term relief of MUO and represent a simple and effective alternative to other methods of urinary diversion. They avoid the need for external tubes and contribute to improved patient satisfaction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-76
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Endourology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • double stenting
  • long-term follow-up
  • malignant ureteral obstruction


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