The long-term effects of rehabilitated infancy (1 year old) iron deficiency (ID) were examined at age 10. The children were examined for the following variables: auditory system function, the level of morning Cortisol, LQ. score (WISC-R), and behavioral profile. The results indicate that while the former ID children's hearing system appears to function well, there was a delay in brain stem processing of the auditory signals. In addition, the level of morning cortisol was reduced, the general LQ. scores were lower than the normal group (mainly in the performed subtest), and more sleep disturbances and fatigue during day were reported. These outcomes are consistent with established reports on the effect of iron deficiency on the rate of myelination in selected brain areas during critical period of 1 year olds. The findings of increased sleep disturbances and lower I.Q. tests require further study.