Levodopa–carbidopa intestinal gel in advanced Parkinson’s disease: long-term results from COSMOS

Alfonso Fasano*, Rocío García-Ramos, Tanya Gurevich, Robert Jech, Lars Bergmann, Olga Sanchez-Soliño, Juan Carlos Parra, Mihaela Simu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: While immediate benefits of levodopa–carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) are evident in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), long-term LCIG effects require further study. Objectives: We explored long-term LCIG on motor symptoms, nonmotor symptoms (NMS), and LCIG treatment settings in patients with advanced PD (APD). Methods: Data were obtained (medical records and patient visit) from COSMOS, a multinational, retrospective, cross-sectional post-marketing observational study in patients with APD. Patients were stratified into 5 groups based on LCIG treatment duration at the patient visit, from 1–2 to > 5 years LCIG. Between-group differences were assessed for changes from baseline in LCIG settings, motor symptoms, NMS, add-on medications, and safety. Results: Out of 387 patients, the number of patients per LCIG group was: > 1– ≤ 2 years LCIG (n = 156); > 2– ≤ 3 years LCIG (n = 80); > 3– ≤ 4 years LCIG (n = 61); > 4– ≤ 5 years LCIG (n = 30); > 5 years LCIG (n = 60). Baseline values were similar; data reported are changes from the baseline. There were reductions in “off” time, dyskinesia duration, and severity across LCIG groups. Prevalence, severity, and frequency of many individual motor symptoms and some NMS were reduced amongst all LCIG groups, with few differences between groups. Doses for LCIG, LEDD and LEDD for add-on medications were similar across groups both at LCIG initiation and patient visit. Adverse events were similar across all LCIG groups and consistent with the established safety profile of LCIG. Conclusions: LCIG may provide sustained, long-term symptom control, while potentially avoiding increases in add-on medication dosages. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03362879. Number and date: P16-831, November 30, 2017.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2765-2775
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Neurology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023


  • Dyskinesia
  • Long-term treatment
  • Motor symptoms
  • Nonmotor symptoms
  • Parkinson's disease


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