Left Ventricular Lead Location and Long-Term Outcomes in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Patients

Valentina Kutyifa*, Annamaria Kosztin, Helmut U. Klein, Yitschak Biton, Vivien Klaudia Nagy, Scott D. Solomon, Scott McNitt, Wojciech Zareba, Ilan Goldenberg, Attila Roka, Arthur J. Moss, Bela Merkely, Jagmeet P. Singh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: The authors aimed to evaluate the association of left ventricular (LV) lead location and long-term outcomes in MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy). Background: There is limited data on the association of lead location with long-term clinical outcomes in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D). Methods: The LV lead location was classified in 797 patients with CRT-D, in 569 patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB), in 228 patients with non-LBBB, and in 505 patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) only. Leads were classified into apical (n = 83) and non-apical (n = 486); with the non-apical LV leads further categorized into anterior (n = 99) and posterior/lateral (n = 387) within LBBB. All-cause mortality and heart failure (HF) events were assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox analyses. Results: In CRT-D patients with LBBB and posterior/lateral LV lead location, there was an association with a significant reduction in long-term all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37 to 0.79; p = 0.001), and HF events (HR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.60; p < 0.001) compared to an ICD only, accompanied with better LV reverse remodeling. CRT-D patients with LBBB and an anterior LV lead location were shown to be associated with a significant reduction in HF events compared to an ICD only (anterior HR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.82; p = 0.006); however, no association with mortality reduction was observed from CRT-D versus an ICD only. CRT-D was not associated with improved outcomes in non-LBBB patients, regardless of LV lead location. Conclusions: In mild HF patients with LBBB and an implanted CRT-D, lateral/posterior, and anterior LV lead locations are similarly associated with reduction in the risk of HF or death events compared to ICD alone. Mortality benefit derived from CRT-D is associated only with patients with lateral/posterior LV lead location. An apical LV lead location should be avoided due to the early risk of death whenever possible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1410-1420
Number of pages11
JournalJACC: Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • LV lead
  • cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • long-term outcomes


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