Objective This study was undertaken to identify potential anatomic and surgical factors creating left-sided lesions, namely recoarctation of the aorta and neoaortic regurgitation, after anatomic repair of transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect and aortic coarctation. Methods From 1983 to September 2002, 109 survivors out of 120 patients were studied. Two-stage repair was performed in 42 patients (group A), and single-stage repair was performed in 67 (groups B and C). Before repair, the diameters of the ascending aorta and main pulmonary artery were measured. In the patients with single-stage repair, coarctation was repaired by extended end-to-end anastomosis in 35 patients (group B) and by pulmonary homograft patch augmentation in 32 patients (group C). The ventricular septal defect was closed through the pulmonary artery in 70 patients and through the right ventricle or atrium in 39 patients. The neoaorto-aortic discrepancy was treated by V-shaped resection of the posterior sinus of Valsalva in 7 cases, pulmonary homograft patch in 32 cases, and anterior splitting of the ascending aorta in all cases. Before discharge from the hospital, neoaortic root and ascending aorta diameters and aortic regurgitation grade were recorded. Neoaortic regurgitation progression and reintervention were the end points of follow-up (97.2 ± 61.2 months). Results Early and late survivals were significantly better in group C (P < .001). Risk factors for neoaortic regurgitation at discharge by univariate analysis were single-stage repair (P < .05) and ventricular septal defect closure through the pulmonary artery (P = .0076). On multivariate analysis, the latter was the only risk factor for neoaortic regurgitation at discharge and at last follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that higher neoaortic root/ascending aorta ratio and ventricular septal defect closure through the pulmonary artery were risk factors for neoaortic regurgitation evolution at last follow-up. There were 29 reinterventions, 19 for recoarctation of the aorta and 10 for neoaortic regurgitation with or without aortic root dilatation. Group B (P < .05), high neoaortic root/ascending aorta ratio (P < .01), and progressive neoaortic regurgitation (P < .05) were risk factors for recoarctation of the aorta. Group A was a risk factor for aortic valve replacement at 10 years (P < .05). Conclusion Neonatal single-stage repair with pulmonary homograft aortic augmentation remains the optimal approach to transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect and aortic coarctation. It provides better early and late survivals and freedoms from left-sided lesions. Avoidance of late recoarctation of the aorta and progressive neoaortic regurgitation requires meticulous closure of the ventricular septal defect and evenly sized reconstruction of the aorta from root to distal arch.