Learning in tele-operations

Joseph Bukchin*, Ruth Luquer, Avraham Shtub

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Tele-operation is used when a task has to be performed in a hostile, unsafe, inaccessible or remote environment. Examples of tele-operation include the dismantling of bombs by the police and the manipulation of robotic arms in nuclear reactors, in deep seas or in space. Two commonly used methods in tele-operation are direct manipulation and indirect manipulation. In direct manipulation the operator has a direct view of the manipulator and performs mostly mechanical tasks. In indirect manipulation the operator does not have a direct view of the manipulator, and sensors such as closed loop TV systems are used to provide the operator with on-line information. In this case, manipulation requires mental efforts, since the presentation of the manipulator environment is frequently distorted due to the limited ability of sensors to provide a complete and accurate view of reality. In this study a simple pick and place tele-operation task was performed in the direct and indirect modes by the participating subjects. The analysis of the results show that while the very same learning model can be used to analyze the learning process in both modes, the parameters of the models are significantly different. Thus the duration of the learning process, as well as the most appropriate leaching methodology, may differ substantially between the two modes of operation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-252
Number of pages8
JournalIIE Transactions (Institute of Industrial Engineers)
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2002


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