Learning disability subtyping, loneliness, and classroom adjustment

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34 Scopus citations


This study was designed to identify patterns of social-emotional subgroups among students with learning disabilities. The sample consisted of 122 students from 12 self-contained classes for students with learning disabilities situated in regular schools in Israel. Through cluster analysis using measures of loneliness and externalizing and internalizing behavioral maladjustment, four subgroups of students were identified: two non-lonely groups—one behaviorally adjusted and the other with externalizing maladjustment; and two highly lonely groups—one with high externalizing maladjustment, the other with high internalizing maladjustment. Internal validation through MANCOVA analysis revealed significant differences between subgroups on the three classification criteria. As external validation of the classification, significant intergroup differences were also found on teacher- and student-rated social skills and peer acceptance ratings. Case studies demonstrated subgroup patterns, individual differences, and the personal meaning attributed to loneliness and social relations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)297-310
Number of pages14
JournalLearning Disability Quarterly
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1994


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