Latin American Consensus Statement for the Use of Contrast-Enhanced Transcranial Ultrasound as a Diagnostic Test for Detection of Right-to-Left Shunt

Viviane Flumignan Zetola*, Marcos Christiano Lange, Valeria Cristina Scavasine, Rodrigo Bazan, Gabriel Pereira Braga, Ana Claudia C.B. Leite, Soraia R.Cabette Fabio, Octavio Marques Pontes Neto, Carla Heloisa Cabral Moro, Gisele Sampaio, Edson Bor-Seng Shu, Marcelo De Lima Oliveira, Maramelia A. De Miranda Alves, Daniela Laranja Gomes, Pedro Antonio Pereira De Jesus, Jamary Oliveira-Filho, Wagner Mauad Avelar, Gabriel R. De Freitas, Rafael Borsoi, Corina PuppoSilvia Viviana Cocorullo, Alejandro Brunser, Ayrton Massaro, Natan M. Bornstein, Alexander Razumovsky, Massimo Del Sette

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: The role of patent foramen ovale is a field of debate and current publications have increasing controversies about the patients' management in young undetermined stroke. Work up with echocardiography and transcranial Doppler (TCD) can aid the decision with better anatomical and functional characterization of right-to-left shunt (RLS). Medical and interventional strategy may benefit from this information. Summary: A group of experts from the Latin American participants of the Neurosonology Research Group (NSRG) of World Federation of Neurology created a task force to review literature and describe the better methodology of contrast TCD (c-TCD). All signatories of the present consensus statement have published at least one study on TCD as an author or co-author in an indexed journal. Two meetings were held while the consensus statement was being drafted, during which controversial issues were discussed and voted on by the statement signatories. The statement paper was reviewed and approved by the Executive Committee of the NSRG of the World Federation of Neurology. The main objective of this consensus statement is to establish a standardization of the c-TCD technique and its interpretation, in order to improve the informative quality of the method, resulting in expanding the application of TCD in the clinical setting. These recommendations optimize the comparison of different diagnostic methods and encourage the use of c-TCD for RLS screening and complementary diagnosis in multicenter studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-108
Number of pages10
JournalCerebrovascular Diseases
Issue number3-6
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Contrast-transcranial Doppler
  • Patent foramen ovale
  • Right to left shunt
  • Statement
  • Transcranial Doppler


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