Know thy enemy: Evolving attitudes towards "Others" in modern Shiʿi thought and practice

Research output: Book/ReportBook


"In Know Thy Enemy, Meir Litvak analyzes the re-articulations of the "Others" in modern Shiʻism, as a novel way to examine the formulation of modern Shiʻi identity and place in the world. Among these others, which have transformed into "enemies" in the modern period are the West, apostates, Wahhabism, Jews, Baha'is and feminism. Looking at the rhetorical themes that Shiʻi writers use, the book demonstrates the contrast between the collective positive "We" and the negative threatening "Other" as a major principle in the evolution of Shiʻism as the minority branch of Islam. It offers a complex view of Shiʻi identity combining a sense of victimhood and insecurity together with conviction of intellectual and moral superiority and long-term triumph"--
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationLeiden
Number of pages385
ISBN (Electronic)9789004444683, 9004444688
ISBN (Print)900443920X, 9789004439207
StatePublished - 2021

Publication series

NameSocial, economic and political studies of the Middle East and Asia
ISSN (Print)1385-3376


  • Other (Philosophy) -- Religious aspects -- Islam
  • Islam
  • Shīʻah -- Iran
  • Shiites -- Iran
  • Shīʻah -- Relations -- Sunnites
  • Shīʻah -- Relations
  • שיעה -- יחסים
  • الشيعة -- العلاقات
  • שיעה -- איראן
  • الشيعة -- إيران
  • שיעה -- יחסים -- סונים
  • الشيعة -- العلاقات -- السنّة
  • שיעים -- איראן
  • אסלאם
  • إسلام
  • אחר (פילוסופיה) -- היבטים דתיים -- אסלאם

ULI Keywords

  • uli
  • Shīʻah -- Relations
  • Shīʻah -- Relations -- Judaism
  • Shīʻah -- Relations -- Sunnites


Dive into the research topics of 'Know thy enemy: Evolving attitudes towards "Others" in modern Shiʿi thought and practice'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this