In view of the proposed central role of LDL oxidation in atherogenesis and the established role of HDL in reducing the risk of atherosclerosis, several studies were undertaken to investigate the possible effect of HDL on LDL peroxidation. Since these investigations yielded contradictory results, we have conducted systematic kinetic studies on the oxidation in mixtures of HDL and LDL induced by different concentrations of copper, 2, 2′-azo bis (2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). These studies revealed that oxidation of LDL induced either by AAPH or MPO is inhibited by HDL under all the studied conditions, whereas copper-induced oxidation of LDL is inhibited by HDL at low copper/lipoprotein ratio but accelerated by HDL at high copper/lipoprotein ratio. The antioxidative effects of HDL are only partially due to HDL-associated enzymes, as indicated by the finding that reconstituted HDL, containing no such enzymes, inhibits peroxidation induced by low copper concentration. Reduction of the binding of copper to LDL by competitive binding to the HDL also contributes to the antioxidative effect of HDL. The acceleration of copper-induced oxidation of LDL by HDL may be attributed to the hydroperoxides formed in the "more oxidizable" HDL, which migrate to the "less oxidizable" LDL and enhance the oxidation of the LDL lipids induced by bound copper. This hypothesis is supported by the results of experiments in which native LDL was added to oxidizing lipoprotein at different time points. When the native LDL was added prior to decomposition of the hydroperoxides in the oxidizing lipoprotein, the lag preceding oxidation of the LDL was much shorter than the lag observed when the native LDL was added at latter stages, after the level of hydroperoxides became reduced due to their copper-catalyzed decomposition. The observed dependence of the interrelationship between the oxidation of HDL and LDL on the oxidative stress should be considered in future investigations regarding the oxidation of lipoprotein mixtures.
- Free radicals