Kidney function loss and albuminuria progression with GLP-1 receptor agonists versus basal insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes: real-world evidence

Meir Schechter, Cheli Melzer Cohen, Alisa Fishkin, Aliza Rozenberg, Ilan Yanuv, Dvora R. Sehtman-Shachar, Gabriel Chodick, Alice Clark, Trine J. Abrahamsen, Jack Lawson, Avraham Karasik, Ofri Mosenzon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: In clinical trials enrolling patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at high cardiovascular risk, many glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) improved albuminuria status and possibly mitigated kidney function loss. However, limited data are available regarding the effects of GLP-1 RAs on albuminuria status and kidney function in real-world settings, including populations with a lower baseline cardiovascular and kidney risk. We assessed the association of GLP-1 RAs initiation with long-term kidney outcomes in the Maccabi Healthcare Services database, Israel. Methods: Adults with T2D treated with ≥ 2 glucose-lowering agents who initiated GLP-1 RAs or basal insulin from 2010 to 2019 were propensity-score matched (1:1) and followed until October 2021 (intention-to-treat [ITT]). In an as-treated (AT) analysis, follow-up was also censored at study-drug discontinuation or comparator-initiation. We assessed the risk of a composite kidney outcome, including confirmed ≥ 40% eGFR loss or end-stage kidney disease, and the risk of new macroalbuminuria. Treatment-effect on eGFR slopes was assessed by fitting a linear regression model per patient, followed by a t-test to compare the slopes between the groups. Results: Each propensity-score matched group constituted 3424 patients, 45% women, 21% had a history of cardiovascular disease, and 13.9% were treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors at baseline. Mean eGFR was 90.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 (SD 19.3) and median UACR was 14.6 mg/g [IQR 0.0–54.7]. Medians follow-up were 81.1 months (ITT) and 22.3 months (AT). The hazard-ratios [95% CI] of the composite kidney outcome with GLP-1 RAs versus basal insulin were 0.96 [0.82–1.11] (p = 0.566) and 0.71 [0.54–0.95] (p = 0.020) in the ITT and AT analyses, respectively. The respective HRs for first new macroalbuminuria were 0.87 [0.75–0.997] and 0.80 [0.64–0.995]. The use of GLP-1 RA was associated with a less steep eGFR slope compared with basal insulin in the AT analysis (mean annual between-group difference of 0.42 mL/min/1.73 m2/year [95%CI 0.11–0.73]; p = 0.008). Conclusion: Initiation of GLP-1 RAs in a real-world setting is associated with a reduced risk of albuminuria progression and possible mitigation of kidney function loss in patients with T2D and mostly preserved kidney function.

Original languageEnglish
Article number126
JournalCardiovascular Diabetology
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Funding

FundersFunder number
Hadassah Hebrew University Hospital
Novo Nordisk

    Keywords

    • Albuminuria
    • Basal insulin
    • Chronic kidney disease
    • GLP-1 RA
    • Real world
    • Real world evidence
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • eGFR slope

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