Key research questions for implementation of artificial intelligence in capsule endoscopy

Romain Leenhardt*, Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Aymeric Histace, Gunnar Baatrup, Sabina Beg, Arnaud Bourreille, Thomas de Lange, Rami Eliakim, Dimitris Iakovidis, Michael Dam Jensen, Martin Keuchel, Reuma Margalit Yehuda, Deirdre McNamara, Miguel Mascarenhas, Cristiano Spada, Santi Segui, Pia Smedsrud, Ervin Toth, Gian Eugenio Tontini, Eyal KlangXavier Dray, Uri Kopylov

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly infiltrating multiple areas in medicine, with gastrointestinal endoscopy paving the way in both research and clinical applications. Multiple challenges associated with the incorporation of AI in endoscopy are being addressed in recent consensus documents. Objectives: In the current paper, we aimed to map future challenges and areas of research for the incorporation of AI in capsule endoscopy (CE) practice. Design: Modified three-round Delphi consensus online survey. Methods: The study design was based on a modified three-round Delphi consensus online survey distributed to a group of CE and AI experts. Round one aimed to map out key research statements and challenges for the implementation of AI in CE. All queries addressing the same questions were merged into a single issue. The second round aimed to rank all generated questions during round one and to identify the top-ranked statements with the highest total score. Finally, the third round aimed to redistribute and rescore the top-ranked statements. Results: Twenty-one (16 gastroenterologists and 5 data scientists) experts participated in the survey. In the first round, 48 statements divided into seven themes were generated. After scoring all statements and rescoring the top 12, the question of AI use for identification and grading of small bowel pathologies was scored the highest (mean score 9.15), correlation of AI and human expert reading-second (9.05), and real-life feasibility-third (9.0). Conclusion: In summary, our current study points out a roadmap for future challenges and research areas on our way to fully incorporating AI in CE reading.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTherapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
StatePublished - 2022


  • artificial intelligence
  • capsule endoscopy
  • research


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