Isothermal Oxidation of Ti3Al0.6Ga0.4C2MAX Phase Solid Solution in Air at 1000 °c to 1300 °c

Tarek A. Elmeligy, Enrica Epifano, Maxim Sokol, Gilles Hug, Marcus Hans, Jochen M. Schneider, Michel W. Barsoum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The atomically laminated Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2 and Cr2AlC MAX phases, with A = Al, form adherent, passivating α-alumina, Al2O3,v oxide scales when heated in air. The effect of solid solutions on the A layers in affecting the oxidation kinetics remains a subject of open research. Herein we synthesize a dense bulk polycrystalline Ti3Al1-xGaxC2 (x ≈ 0.4) solid-solution and investigate its isothermal oxidation in ambient air, in the 1000 °C-1300 °C temperature range, for times varying between 15 and 300 h. At 1000 ° C, a passivating dense Al2O3 layer ( ≈ 1-2.6 μm thick) with near cubic kinetics and an overall weight gain that is slightly less than either Ti3AlC2 or Ti2AlC is formed. At 1200 °C, the Al2O3 layer thickens (3.5-12 μm thick) with some scale delamination on the corners initiating at 15 h. At 1300 °C, the Al2O3 layer (7.6-20.7 μm thick) wrinkles and Al2TiO5 forms. Though the Al2O3 grains coarsen at 1200 °C and 1300 °C, the weight gain is higher than that for Ti3AlC2 or Ti2AlC. At around 7 at. %, this is one of the lowest, if not lowest, Al mole fraction in a Ti-based alloy/compound that forms an Al2O3 passivating layer. We further provide compelling microstructural evidence, in the form of a duplex oxide, that at 1000 °C, the outward Al flux, JAl, and the inward O flux, JO, are related such that 2 JAl = 3 JO.

Original languageEnglish
Article number031510
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • High Temperature Materials
  • Layered Carbides
  • MAX
  • Oxidation
  • alumina formers


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