Ischemic preconditioning: Nearly two decades of research. A comprehensive review

Alon Eisen, Enrique Z. Fisman, Melvyn Rubenfire, Dov Freimark, Ronald McKechnie, Alexander Tenenbaum, Michael Motro, Yehuda Adler*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The phenomenon of "ischemic preconditioning" has been recognized for almost two decades. In experimental animals and humans, a brief period of ischemia has been shown to protect the heart from more prolonged episodes of ischemia, and reduce the degree of impaired ventricular function or subsequent damage. Ischemic preconditioning is classified into two distinct components: the classic early preconditioning and the delayed or late preconditioning, each with its own biologic mechanism of adaptation. A comprehensive understanding of these mechanisms and application to clinical scenarios has the promise of providing unique opportunities, particularly regarding the development of preconditioning mimetic agents. Administration of these mimetic drugs or procedures could potentially advance the use of preconditioning as a therapeutic tool and/or preventive factor for cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)201-210
Number of pages10
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2004


  • Atherosclerosis
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Ischemic preconditioning


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