Accumulating evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) supports 7 days treatment for uncomplicated Gram-negative bacteraemia. However, some patient populations were not well represented in these RCTs, including critically ill patients, immunocompromised patients and those with MDR bacteria. In this debate document, we discuss the pros and cons for treating patients with Gram-negative bacteraemia with a 7 day antibiotic course. We surmise that the patients who were not well represented in the RCTs are probably those who have most to lose from the drawbacks of prolonged antibiotic courses, including adverse events, superinfections and resistance development. Treatment durations among these patients can be managed individually, with C-reactive protein or procalcitonin guidance or by clinical measures, and with care to discontinue antibiotics as soon as the patient recovers clinically from the infection.