The levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors in normal and abnormal uterine cervices were determined. The study group consisted of 14 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III) and 7 patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix (stage IB-IIA). The control group included 23 patients who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy for menorrhagia, leiomyoma, etc. The concentration of total estrogen receptors in pre-malignant and malignant cervices did not differ from the patients with benign conditions of the cervix. The concentration of progesterone receptors was significantly higher in the nonaffected cervices than in the patients with preinvasive and invasive carcinoma of the cervix (P < 0.05). We have shown that estrogen receptor concentrations do not differ between women with normal and abnormal uterine cervices. Therefore, we feel that the contraceptive pill is not contraindicated in women who have been treated for CIN III. We also maintain that hormone replacement therapy should be given, when indicated, to women who have been castrated following surgery and/or radiotherapy for invasive carcinoma of the cervix.