Is fibromyalgia an autoimmune disorder?

Daniel Clauw, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini*, Greta Pellegrino, Yehuda Shoenfeld

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Fibromyalgia (FM) is a multifactorial syndrome which includes not only widespread pain and stiffness, now recognized as major symptoms, but also numerous other somatic, emotional, and neuropsychic manifestation. The lack of specific validated biological and instrumental biomarkers has made FM a condition of unexplained medical significance, and its pathophysiology remains controversial and subject to debate. The current hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis of FM proposes that its development is influenced by various mechanism, including genetic predisposition, stressful life events, inflammatory processes, and cognitive-emotional factors. However, despite the extensive research conducted to date, the available data do not provide a clear understanding of the pathogenesis of FM. In this article, we report the opposing viewpoints of two leading experts who debate the question of whether FM is an autoimmune disease, based on scientific data regarding this condition. Both perspectives are discussed and the latest evidence on the pathophysiology of FM is reported to provide a comprehensive understanding of this complex syndrome.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103424
JournalAutoimmunity Reviews
StateAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Autoimmune disease
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Nociplastic pain


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