Twice in one decade Iraq took the world by surprise: in September 1980 it invaded Iran and in August 1990 it invaded Kuwait. The primary object of the invasion was to compensate Iraq for giving up the Shatt al-‘Arab and ensure an outlet to the sea, which would solve Iraq’s geostrategic problems. Iraq was so determined to create a strong army and develop new weapons that it was undeterred by both external setbacks and an appalling domestic situation. Officially, Iraq related the change in its policy to US anti-Iraqi and anti-Arab positions on various issues, chief of which was what Baghdad described as active support for the immigration of Soviet Jews to Israel as well as US recognition of united Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. At the beginning of the year, Iraq organized a wide-ranging propaganda campaign aimed at allaying the fears of Arab governments and arousing the enthusiasm of the Arab masses for the Iraqi vision.