Iraq (Al-Jumhuriyya al-'iraqiyya)

Ofra Bengio*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


A combination of military, economic and political factors made 1986 a very difficult year for Iraq, in fact the most difficult since the beginning of its war with Iran. Iraq's difficult economic situation was complicated in 1986 by its accumulating external debts, the high cost of the war and the world oil crisis which drastically curtailed its income. This situation alarmed the regime because it was likely to hamper the war effort and to undermine the social basis on which it rested. The difficult military and economic situation had its repercussions on Iraq's foreign relations and its ability to mobilize support for its cause. The danger of its military collapse prompted some of Iraq's staunchest supporters to open channels of communication with its rival. The military setbacks brought pressure to bear on the political system. The military leadership demanded greater freedom of action.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMiddle East Contemporary Survey
Subtitle of host publicationVolume X, 1986
EditorsItamar Rabinovich, Haim Shaked
Place of PublicationBoulder & London
PublisherWestview Press
Number of pages36
ISBN (Electronic)9780429698651
ISBN (Print)0813307643
StatePublished - 1988

Publication series

NameMiddle East Contemporary Survey


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