Involvement of the c-jun N-terminal kinases JNK1 and JNK2 in complement-mediated cell death

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Abstract

Cell death and survival signals activated by the complement membrane attack complex C5b-9 play important roles in complement-associated diseases and in antibody-based cancer therapy. Here, we investigated the involvement of the JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase in C5b-9-induced cell lysis. Necrotic-type cell death regulation by JNK1 and JNK2 was selectively studied in mouse fibroblasts and human K562, HeLa and 293T cells. C5b-9 induced higher JNK activation than C5b-8. Pretreatment with a JNK inhibitor reduced cell sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis. KO cells deficient in either JNK1 or JNK2 were less sensitive to lysis than WT cells. This correlated with lower C3 and C5b-9 deposition on KO cells. Furthermore, silencing of JNK1 or JNK2 expression by RNA interference decreased cell lysis by complement. Reconstitution of JNK2 into JNK2-/- cells and over expression of JNK2 in WT cells increased C3 and C5b-9 deposition as well as cell sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis. Pretreatment of cells with the phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor phenylarsine oxide increased JNK activation and JNK-dependent complement-mediated necrotic death of WT and JNK2-/- KO cells but not of JNK1-/- KO cells. The JNK inhibitor and PAO had no effect on complement-mediated lysis in cells lacking Bid, suggesting involvement of Bid in the JNK lytic pathway. Our results demonstrate that complement C5b-9 induce a JNK/Bid-dependent and JNK-independent necrotic cell death. Both JNK1 and JNK2 have cytotoxic potential, however JNK2 is the primary signal transducer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)310-317
Number of pages8
JournalMolecular Immunology
Volume47
Issue number2-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2009

Keywords

  • C5b-9
  • Complement
  • Cytotoxicity
  • JNK
  • Necrosis

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