3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and isoprenoids, is subject to rapid degradation which is regulated by mevalonate (MVA)-derived metabolic products. HMG-CoA reductase is an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, the largest nonmitochondrial pool of cellular Ca2+. To assess the possible role of Ca2+ in the regulated degradation of HMG-CoA reductase, we perturbed cellular Ca2+ concentration and followed the fate of HMG-CoA reductase and of HMGal, a fusion protein consisting of the membrane domain of HMG-CoA reductase and the soluble bacterial enzyme β-galactosidase. The degradation of HMGal mirrors that of HMG-CoA reductase, demonstrating that the membrane domain of HMG-CoA reductase is sufficient to confer regulated degradation (Skalnik, D. G., Narita, H., Kent, C., and Simoni, R. D. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 6836-6841; Chun, K. T., Bar-Nun, S., and Simoni, R. D. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 22004-22010). In this study we show that the MVA-dependent accelerated rates of degradation of HMG-CoA reductase and HMGal in cells maintained in Ca2+-free medium are 2-3-fold slower than the rate of degradation in cells grown in high (1.8-2 mM) Ca2+ concentration. This effect is reversed upon addition of Ca2+ to the medium. Furthermore, when cells maintained in high Ca2+ are treated with 1 μM ionomycin, the MVA-dependent accelerated degradation of HMG-CoA reductase and HMGal is also reduced about 2-3-fold. This inhibition is not due to a Ca2+-dependent uptake or incorporation of MVA into sterols, since these processes are not affected in the absence of external Ca2+. In addition, cobalt, a known antagonist of Ca2+-dependent cellular functions, totally abolishes (IC50 = 520 μM in the presence of 1.8 mM extracellular Ca2+) the MVA-accelerated degradation of HMGal. These results suggest that Ca2+ plays a major role in the regulated degradation of HMG-CoA reductase.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1991|