The cytogenetic findings of therapy-related myeloid leukemia (t-ML) in three children are presented. These included one male patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who underwent bone marrow transplantation and developed therapy-related myeloproliferative disease (t-MPD) in the female-donor hematopoietic cells 2.5 years after receiving radiation and epipodophyllotoxin therapy for ALL testicular relapse. Bone marrow leukemic cell karyotype revealed 46,XX,add (11)(p15) and a normal female karyotype in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. The other two children, one with ALL and one with ganglioneuroblastoma, developed fatal t-MPD and therapy-related acute myeloblastic leukemia (t-AML) preceded by myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS), respectively, 5 years after diagnosis, following administration of alkylating agents and irradiation. Monosomy 7 was present in both, and was combined with inv(3)(q21q26) in the second patient. Our review of the cytogenetic findings in 91 previously reported pediatric patients with t-ML suggested that the involvement of 11p15 and 3q21→23, 3q24-q26 with or without a combination of translocation 11q23 and -7 7q-, respectively, are nonrandom aberrations of t-ML in children. Comparison of the chromosomal changes in t-ML between the pediatric and an adult series revealed some differences which may result from differences in treatment modalities and which, in addition, may indicate a possible role of genetic and/or age-dependent factors in the pathogenesis of therapy-related leukemogenesis in children.