Investigation of bias related to differences between case and control interview dates in five INTERPHONE countries

Michelle C. Turner*, Siegal Sadetzki, Chelsea E. Langer, Rodrigo Villegas, Jordi Figuerola, Bruce K. Armstrong, Angela Chetrit, Graham G. Giles, Daniel Krewski, Martine Hours, Mary L. McBride, Marie Elise Parent, Lesley Richardson, Jack Siemiatycki, Alistair Woodward, Elisabeth Cardis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose Associations between cellular telephone use and glioma risk have been examined in several epidemiological studies including the 13-country INTERPHONE study. Although results showed no positive association between cellular telephone use and glioma risk overall, no increased risk for long-term users, and no exposure-response relationship, there was an elevated risk for those in the highest decile of cumulative call time. However, results may be biased as data were collected during a period of rapidly increasing cellular telephone use, and as controls were usually interviewed later in time than cases. Methods Further analyses were conducted in a subset of five INTERPHONE study countries (Australia, Canada, France, Israel, New Zealand) using a post hoc matching strategy to optimize proximity of case-to-control interview dates and age. Results Although results were generally similar to the original INTERPHONE study, there was some attenuation of the reduced odds ratios and stronger positive associations among long-term users and those in the highest categories for cumulative call time and number of calls (eighth–ninth and 10th decile). Conclusions Proximity and symmetry in timing of case-to-control interviews should be optimized when exposure patterns are changing rapidly with time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)827-832.e2
JournalAnnals of Epidemiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2016


FundersFunder number
Canadian Wireless Telecommunications Association
European Fifth Framework Program
Hawkes Bay Medical Research Foundation
Quality of Life and Management of Living ResourcesQLK4-CT-1999901563
Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer
Bouygues Telecom
Canadian Institutes of Health ResearchMOP-42525
Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
Australian Research Council5142
Australian Research Council
National Health and Medical Research Council
Health Research Council of New Zealand
Cancer Society of New Zealand
University of Sydney
Canada Research Chairs
Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme219129
Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme
Société Française de Radiologie


    • Case-control study
    • Cellular telephone
    • Glioma
    • Matching


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