Invasive assessment of myocardial bridging in patients with angina and no obstructive coronary artery disease

Vedant Satish Pargaonkar, Takumi Kimura, Ryo Kameda, Shigemitsu Tanaka, Ryotaro Yamada, Jonathan G. Schwartz, Leor Perl, Ian S. Rogers, Yasuhiro Honda, Peter Fitzgerald, Ingela Schnittger, Jennifer A. Tremmel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: Angina and no obstructive coronary artery disease (ANOCA) is common. A potential cause of angina in this patient population is a myocardial bridge (MB). We aimed to study the anatomical and haemodynamic characteristics of an MB in patients with ANOCA. Methods and results: Using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), we identified 184 MBs in 154 patients. We evaluated MB length, arterial compression, and halo thickness. MB muscle index (MMI) was defined as MB length×halo thickness. Haemodynamic testing of the MB was performed using an intracoronary pressure/Doppler flow wire at rest and during dobutamine stress. We defined an abnormal diastolic fractional flow reserve (dFFR) as ≤0.76 during stress. The median MB length was 22.9 mm, arterial compression 30.9%, and halo thickness 0.5 mm. The median MMI was 12.1. Endothelial and microvascular dysfunction were present in 85.4% and 22.1%, respectively. At peak dobutamine stress, 94.2% of patients had a dFFR ≤0.76 within and/or distal to the MB. MMI was associated with an abnormal dFFR. Conclusions: In select patients with ANOCA who have an MB by IVUS, the majority have evidence of a haemodynamically significant dFFR during dobutamine stress, suggesting the MB as being a cause of their angina. A comprehensive invasive assessment of such patients during coronary angiography provides important diagnostic information that can guide management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1070-1078
Number of pages9
Issue number13
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Fractional flow reserve
  • Intravascular ultrasound
  • Stable angina


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