Intrauterine Development of Sex Differences-Fetal Programming

Marek Glezerman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The science of intrauterine development of sex differences, also known as "fetal programming" is concerned with the impacts of exogenous stimuli on the developing fetus. It is now largely acknowledged that during intrauterine life epigenetic processes in the fetus modulate homeostatic set-points and the stage is set for the future development of health and disease. Whatever affects the pregnant mother may affect her growing fetus and this includes nutrition, habits, medications, and stress. Understanding the concept of fetal programming means to understand the care of the pregnant women and must include the care of the fetus as a patient for the benefit its future well-being.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPrinciples of Gender-Specific Medicine
Subtitle of host publicationGender in the Genomic Era: Third Edition
Number of pages13
ISBN (Print)9780128035061
StatePublished - 15 May 2017


  • Antenatal stress
  • Brain dimorphism
  • Fetal programming
  • Maternal nutrition
  • Sex differences


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