Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) after hysteroscopic treatment of retained products of conception (RPOC). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Gynecologic endoscopy unit. Patient(s) A total of 167 women referred to our institution from 2009 to 2013. Intervention(s) Operative hysteroscopy for treatment of RPOC and office hysteroscopic follow-up to assess for IUA. Main Outcome Measure(s) We investigated demographic characteristics, obstetrics parameters, and surgical variables to evaluate which factors could be associated with IUA formation. Result(s) Of 167 women treated for RPOC, 84 (50.3%) had undergone a follow-up hysteroscopic evaluation after the operative hysteroscopy and were included in the study. Intrauterine adhesions were found in 16 cases (19.0%), of which only 3 (3.6%) were severe adhesions. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of IUA was associated with RPOC after cesarean section (5 of 10 [50.5%] developed IUA, vs. 7 of 49 [14.3%] after vaginal delivery). Intrauterine adhesions were also found in 4 of 23 women (17.4%) undergoing hysteroscopy for RPOC after abortion. Patient age, gravidity, parity, and the interval between the index pregnancy and treatment for RPOC were not associated with postoperative IUA. Conclusion(s) Hysteroscopic treatment for RPOC had a 3.6% incidence of severe intrauterine adhesions formation in this descriptive series. Women with RPOC occurring after delivery by cesarean section are particularly at risk for development of IUA.