The anxiety and anticipation that accompany pregnancy, labor, and delivery may be relieved by education, providing knowledge regarding the physiological process of childbirth. Intrapartum ultrasound is an available, simple, intuitive, real-time tool that enables visualization of the fetal head within the birth canal. Both the attending staff and expectant parent can assess its movements and descent in response to the pushing efforts during the active pushing phase. This review described the potential obstetrical and psychological advantages of intrapartum ultrasound in managing the active pushing phase.
- angle of progression
- intrapartum ultrasound
- maternal coaching
- posttraumatic stress disorder following childbirth
- visual biofeedback