Interrelationships between Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms and Hydrocotyle umbellata L.

M. Agami*, K. R. Reddy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The interrelationships between two floating aquatic macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms and Hydrocotyle umbellata L., were investigated under outdoor conditions during September-December in Gainesville, Florida, using nutrient non-limiting growth media. The carrying capacity for each species was investigated in monoculture, while reciprocal replacement series analysis was used for the intermixed combinations. Plants grown in mixed culture produced more biomass yield than plants grown in monoculture. The biomass of H. umbellata grown intermixed with E. crassipes at all densities was higher than that for H. umbellata grown in monoculture at similar plant density. The root-to-shoot ratios of E. crassipes plants in monoculture or in mixed culture were similar, but decreased four-fold during the 14-week growth period. The root-to-shoot ratio of H. umbellata in mixed culture was much lower (by three-six-fold) than for H. umbellata in monoculture. The resultant short roots were also less efficient as a storage organ for nitrogen (four-six-fold lower) and phosphorus (14-fold lower) than the long roots of H. umbellata grown in monoculture. More nitrogen and phosphorus were accumulated in the shoots of E. crassipes than in its roots.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-157
Number of pages11
JournalAquatic Botany
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes


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