Interaction of chlorhexidine with smooth and rough types of titanium surfaces

Avital Kozlovsky*, Zvi Artzi, Ofer Moses, Nurit Kamin-Belsky, Ronit Bar Ness Greenstein

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Scopus citations


Background: Chlorhexidine (CHX) digluconate exerts plaque inhibitory efficacy in the natural dentition environment due to a superior degree of persistence at the tooth surface. The purpose of the present study was to assess the interaction of CHX with titanium surfaces to estimate its antiplaque potential in the peri-implant environment. Methods: Saliva-coated machined smooth (S) and sand-blasted acid-etched rough (R) titanium disks were soaked in either 0.1% or 0.2% CHX solution. After 24 hours, CHX amounts that were adsorbed, washed out, and desorbed from the titanium surfaces were determined spectrophotometrically at 230 nm. The antibacterial activity of CHX-treated titanium disks was assessed by measuring bacterial inhibition zones on Streptococcus mutans lawns. Results: Titanium disks adsorbed 3% to 8% of the available CHX, which was significantly higher with 0.2% CHX (P <0.001) than with 0.1% CHX and two-fold higher on the R titanium disks compared to S titanium surface (P<0.001). After rinsing with water, 2.2% of the adsorbed CHX was washed out. Over 24 hours, S- and R-type disks released 1.1% and 0.6% of the adsorbed agent, respectively. Larger bacterial inhibition zones were obtained with 0.2% CHX and in R disks compared to S disks. Conclusions: CHX displayed persistence at the titanium surface. The adsorption level and bacterial growth inhibition were affected by CHX concentration and titanium surface characteristics, with higher levels of adsorption and antibacterial activity with 0.2% CHX and rough titanium surface. The slow CHX release rate suggests persistence of this agent at the titanium-pellicle surface, which can provide a long-term antiplaque effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1194-1200
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Periodontology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2006


  • Adsorption
  • Chlorhexidine digluconate
  • Titanium


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