Inter-Tumor Heterogeneity-Melanomas Respond Differently to GM-CSF-Mediated Activation

Adi Moshe, Sivan Izraely, Orit Sagi-Assif, Sapir Malka, Shlomit Ben-Menachem, Tsipi Meshel, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Dave S.B. Hoon, Isaac P. Witz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is used as an adjuvant in various clinical and preclinical studies with contradictory results. These were attributed to opposing effects of GM-CSF on the immune or myeloid systems of the treated patients or to lack of optimal dosing regimens. The results of the present study point to inter-tumor heterogeneity as a possible mechanism accounting for the contrasting responses to GM-CSF incorporating therapies. Employing xenograft models of human melanomas in nude mice developed in our lab, we detected differential functional responses of melanomas from different patients to GM-CSF both in vitro as well as in vivo. Whereas cells of one melanoma acquired pro metastatic features following exposure to GM-CSF, cells from another melanoma either did not respond or became less malignant. We propose that inter-melanoma heterogeneity as manifested by differential responses of melanoma cells (and perhaps also of other tumor) to GM-CSF may be developed into a predictive marker providing a tool to segregate melanoma patients who will benefit from GM-CSF therapy from those who will not.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1679
Issue number7
StatePublished - 13 Jul 2020


  • GM-CSF
  • brain metastasis
  • melanoma
  • metastatic microenvironment


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