24 male undergraduates served in an experiment to test the intentionality of the use of hand illustrators, i.e. gestures which are directly tied to speech, serving to illustrate what is being said. Each S had 4 tasks which involved giving directions to 4 places on a university campus to a confederate who supposedly did not know her way around. 2 tasks were carried out in a face-to-face situation with the confederate, while the other 2 were carried out over an intercom. One of the tasks in each situation was easy and the other was difficult. It was found that in the face-to-face situation, Ss used significantly more hand illustrators than in the intercom situation. No differences were obtained between the easy and difficult tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
- face-to-face vs intercom communication, use of gestures directly tied to speech, male college students