Studies from multiple laboratories with a range of methods raised the possibility that insulin production occurs naturally at extrapancreatic sites. Part A covers the presence of insulin-related materials in organisms that do not have an endocrine pancreas, including unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes as well as multicellular non-vertebrate animals (insects et al.) and plants. Part B covers possible production of insulin by extrapancreatic tissues of vertebrates that are remote from a source of pancreatic insulin e.g. early chick embryos and mammalian cells in cultures. Part C covers possible extrapancreatic insulin production in mammals in vivo. Each section ends with an outline summary with evidence in favor of and against the hypothesis.