INSPIRED Symposium Part 4B: Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Correlative Studies—Established Findings and Future Priorities

John A. Ligon*, Sneha Ramakrishna, Francesco Ceppi, Friso G.J. Calkoen, Caroline Diorio, Kara L. Davis, Elad Jacoby, Stephen Gottschalk, Liora M. Schultz, Christian M. Capitini

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has revolutionized the treatment of B cell malignancies, with multiple CAR T cell products approved for numerous indications by regulatory agencies worldwide. However, significant work remains to be done to enhance these treatments. In March 2023, a group of experts in CAR T cell therapy assembled at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland at the Insights in Pediatric CAR T Cell Immunotherapy: Recent Advances and Future Directions (INSPIRED) Symposium to identify key areas for research for the coming years. In session 4B, correlative studies to be incorporated into future clinical trials and real-world settings were discussed. Active areas of research identified included (1) optimizing CAR T cell product manufacturing; (2) ensuring adequate lymphodepletion prior to CAR T cell administration; (3) overcoming immunoregulatory cells and tumor stroma present in the tumor microenvironment, particularly in solid tumors; (4) understanding tumor intrinsic properties that lead to CAR T cell immunotherapy resistance; and (5) uncovering biomarkers predictive of treatment resistance, treatment durability, or immune-related adverse events. Here we review the results of previously published clinical trials and real-world studies to summarize what is currently known about each of these topics. We then outline priorities for future research that we believe will be important for improving our understanding of CAR T cell therapy and ultimately leading to better outcomes for patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTransplantation and Cellular Therapy
StateAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • B-ALL
  • CAR T cells
  • Cellular therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Pediatric leukemia


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