Inhibition of amyloid oligomerization into different supramolecular architectures by small molecules: Mechanistic insights and design rules

Sayanti Brahmachari, Ashim Paul, Daniel Segal*, Ehud Gazit

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Protein misfolding and aggregation have been associated with several human disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, as well as senile systemic amyloidosis and Type II diabetes. However, there is no current disease-modifying therapy available for the treatment of these disorders. In spite of extensive academic, pharmaceutical, medicinal and clinical research, a complete mechanistic model for this family of diseases is still lacking. In this review, we primarily discuss the different types of small molecular entities which have been used for the inhibition of the aggregation process of different amyloidogenic proteins under diseased conditions. These include small peptides, polyphenols, inositols, quinones and their derivatives, and metal chelator molecules. In recent years, these groups of molecules have been extensively studied using in vitro, in vivo and computational models to understand their mechanism of action and common structural features underlying the process of inhibition. A salient feature found to be instrumental in the process of inhibition is the balance between the aromatic unit that functions as the amyloid recognition unit and the hydrophilic amyloid breaker unit. The establishment of structure-function relationship for amyloid-modifying therapies by the various functional entities should serve as an important step toward the development of efficient therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)797-810
Number of pages14
JournalFuture Medicinal Chemistry
Volume9
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2017

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • amyloids
  • inhibitors
  • neurodegenerative diseases
  • peptide inhibitors
  • polyphenols

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