PURPOSE: To evaluate the differences in corneal wavefront measurements in myopic and hyperopic eyes when calculated using three different reference centers and explore possible influencing factors for such differences. METHODS: Corneal wavefront measurements were performed in myopic and hyperopic eyes using a GALILEI Placido Dual Scheimpflug Analyzer (Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems AG). Corneal higher order aberrations (HOAs), including total, vertical, and horizontal coma-like aberrations, spherical aberrations, and total corneal HOAs through a 6-mm pupil size, were calculated over three different reference center positions: pupil center, corneal vertex, and limbus to limbus. Values were then compared between the myopic and hyperopic eyes, and correlations with kappa distance and spherical equivalent were tested. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the level of total corneal HOAs (-0.04 ± 0.05 and -0.12 ± 0.09), total corneal coma (-0.07 ± 0.09 and -0.18 ± 0.12), and horizontal coma (-0.07 ± 0.11 and -0.22 ± 0.11) in myopic and hyperopic eyes, respectively, was found when recalculating from pupil center to corneal vertex centration, whereas a significant increase in the same aberrations was observed from pupil center or corneal vertex to limbus to limbus. Significant correlations were found between the kappa distance and changes in total corneal HOAs, total corneal coma, and horizontal coma from the pupil center to the corneal vertex in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Corneal vertex centration generated the lowest level of corneal wavefront error in both groups. The differences in corneal aberrations between the reference centers for calculation were highly correlated with the kappa distance in hyperopic eyes.