Abstract

Variability in hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes such as 2C19 and 2D6 may influence side-effect and efficacy outcomes for antipsychotics. Aripiprazole and risperidone are two commonly prescribed antipsychotics, metabolized primarily through CYP2D6. Here, we aimed to provide an overview of the effect of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 on side-effects of aripiprazole and risperidone, and expand on existing literature by critically examining methodological issues associated with pharmacogenetic studies. A PRISMA compliant search of six electronic databases (Pubmed, PsychInfo, Embase, Central, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) identified pharmacogenetic studies on aripiprazole and risperidone. 2007 publications were first identified, of which 34 were included. Quality of literature was estimated using Newcastle-Ottowa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) and revised Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. The average NOS score was 5.8 (range: 3–8) for risperidone literature and 5 for aripiprazole (range: 4–6). All RCTs on aripiprazole were rated as high risk of bias, and four out of six for risperidone literature. Study populations ranged from healthy volunteers to inpatient individuals in psychiatric units and included adult and pediatric samples. All n = 34 studies examined CYP2D6. Only one study genotyped for CYP2C19 and found a positive association with neurological side-effects of risperidone. Most studies did not report any relationship between CYP2D6 and any side-effect outcome. Heterogeneity between and within studies limited the ability to synthesize data and draw definitive conclusions. Studies lacked statistical power due to small sample size, selective genotyping methods, and study design. Large-scale randomized trials with multiple measurements, providing robust evidence on this topic, are suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-152
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Psychiatric Research
Volume174
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2024

Funding

FundersFunder number
Horizon 2020945151
Horizon 2020

    Keywords

    • Aripiprazole
    • CYP2C19
    • CYP2D6
    • Pharmacogenetics
    • Risperidone
    • Side-effects

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