Infective endocarditis following gastrointestinal and genitourinary procedures: An argument in favour of prophylaxis

Yardena Siegman-Igra*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In the 2007 American Heart Association guidelines, gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) procedures were removed from the indications for infective endocarditis (IE) prophylaxis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the contribution of GI and GU procedures to the occurrence of IE in order to appreciate whether this removal was justified. Among 212 episodes of IE prospectively collected during 7 y, 20 cases (9%) had invasive GI and GU procedures and 17 (8%) had dental interventions within 3 months before IE diagnosis. Enteric organisms (predominantly Enterococcus faecalis) were significantly more common in the GI and GU group than in all other patients, whereas viridans streptococci, the most common pathogen in the dental group, were absent from the GI and GU group. This unique combination of pathogens in the GI and GU group is highly suggestive of a true association between the procedure and IE. Hence, GI and GU procedures pose a non-negligible risk of acquisition of IE. Consequently, it is proposed here, that adults at high risk of IE who undergo surgical GI and GU procedures, receive prophylaxis that includes an anti-enterococcal agent.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-214
Number of pages7
JournalScandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume42
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2010

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