Induction of cell-mediated immunity against B16-BL6 melanoma in mice vaccinated with cells modified by hydrostatic pressure and chemical crosslinking

Avi Eisenthal, Venkatesh Ramakrishna, Yehuda Skornick, Meir Shinitzky*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


In the preceding paper we have demonstrated an increase in presentation of both major histocompatibility complex antigens (MHC) and a tumor-associated antigen of the weakly immunogenic B16 melanoma by a straight-forward technique. The method consists in modulating the tumor cell membrane by hydrostatic pressure and simultaneous chemical crosslinking of the cell-surface proteins. In B16-BL6 melanoma, the induced antigenic modulation was found to persist for over 48 h, which permitted the evaluation of the ability of modified B16-BL6 cells to induce immunity against unmodified B16-BL6 cells. In the present study, we have shown that a significant systemic immunity was induced only in mice that were immunized with modified B16-BL6 melanoma cells, whereas immunization with unmodified B16-BL6 cells had only a marginal effect when compared to the results in control sham-immunized mice. The induced immunity was specific since a single immunization affected the growth of B16-BL6 tumors but had no effect on MCA 106, an antigenically unrelated tumor. The addition of interleukin-2 to the immunization regimen had no effect on the antitumor responses induced by the modified B16-BL6 cells. The cell-mediated immunity conferred by immunization with treated B16-BL6 cells was confirmed in experiments in vitro where splenocytes from immunized mice could be sensitized to proliferate by the presence of B16-BL6 cells. In addition, the altered antigenicity of these melanoma cells appeared to correlate with their increased susceptibility to specific effectors. Thus,51Cr-labeled B16-BL6 target cells, modified by pressure and crosslinking, in comparison to control labeled target cells, were lysed in much greater numbers by effectors such as lymphokine-activated killer cells and allogeneic cytotoxic lymphocytes (anti-H-2b), while such cells remained resistant to lysis by natural killer cells. Our findings indicate that the physical and chemical modifications of the tumor cells that are described here may be considered as a simple yet effective method for the preparation of tumor vaccines, which could be applied in tumor-bearing hosts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)300-306
Number of pages7
JournalCancer Immunology, Immunotherapy
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1993
Externally publishedYes


  • B16-BL6 melanoma
  • Crosslinking
  • Hydrostatic pressure
  • Tumor vaccine


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