Increased Rate of Familial Mediterranean Fever in Children With ADHD: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

Eugene Merzon, Ariel Israel, Beth Krone, Shani Medvejer*, Shira Cohen, Ilan Green, Avivit Golan-Cohen, Shlomo Vinker, Stephen V. Faraone, Jeffrey H. Newcorn, Shai Ashkenazi, Abraham Weizman, Iris Manor

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: There is growing evidence of involvement of inflammatory mechanisms in ADHD. Previous studies found significantly higher rates of ADHD among children with FMF. The present study examined the rate of exposure to FMF in children with a later (within a 5-year period) diagnosis of ADHD compared to non-ADHD children. Methods: A population-based case-control study of all children (<18 years) registered in Leumit Health Services during 01.01.2006 to 06.30.2021. All cases met ICD-9/10 criteria for ADHD. They were matched by age, sex, and socioeconomic status on a 1:2 rate to randomly selected non-ADHD controls. Results: Fifty-six (0.30%) children with ADHD (N = 18,756) were previously diagnosed with FMF compared to 65 of 37,512 controls (0.17%). A significant, independent association existed between a preceding FMF diagnosis and a later ADHD diagnosis [OR = 1.72 (95% CI 1.18–2.51); p =.003]. Conclusions: The mechanisms underlying the association w between FMF and later ADHD diagnosis merit further elucidation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)669-676
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Attention Disorders
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 2024


FundersFunder number
National Institute of Mental Health1R01NS128535—01, U01AR076092-01A1, 1R21MH1264940, R01MH116037
Oregon Health and Science University
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme965381


    • ADHD
    • FMF
    • autoimmune
    • neuro-inflammation


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